Convert Int To 4 Bytes Java

An integer can be used to represent numbers that range from negative to positive values, or numbers that have only positive values. How to convert a int to 4 byte (DWORD) hex values. See the NOTICE file distributed with * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership. To get the actual value in char variable, you can add '0' with int variable. java, myutils. The argument is converted to signed decimal representation and returned as a string, exactly as if the argument. I believe you are mistaken in thinking that only four bytes contribute to the timestamp. Using Microsoft Visual C++ compiler, all function’s arguments are widened to 32 bits (4 bytes) when they are passed to function. The most significant bit of each byte (MSB) tells if it is the last byte in the encoding (0) or there are more bytes (1). ZipEightByteInteger. The value of the LO byte should be 218. Because there is a type casting happening, we could use java. The server can pick whatever format and the Client will understand it. How do you convert an array of bytes to an int or a float?. A byte will store an 8-bit unsigned number with a range of 0 to 255, no decimal points. I am no VB expert, but supposing you start with a string generated on the Java side like this: -24,23,-40,41,56,-2,11,77,52,-13; I think something like this VB code will work:. Integer values are immutable. Hi guys, This is interesting, but I face another issue. public int intValue() Specified by. Active 6 months ago. The int holds a whole number and float holds a floating-point number. It is generally used if we have to display number in textfield because everything is displayed as a string in form. C / C++ Forums on Bytes. Sizes of C Objects (in Bytes) C Data Type Alpha Intel x86 AMD 64 int 4 4 4 long int 8 8 8 char 1 1 1 short 2 2 2 float 4 4 4 double 8 8 8 long double 8 8 10/12 char * 8 8 8 other pointer 8 8 8 The integer data types (int, long int, short, char) can all be either signed or unsigned. Although an individual BIT column is not 4-byte aligned, NDB reserves 4 bytes (32 bits) per row for the first 1-32 bits needed for BIT columns, then another 4 bytes for bits 33-64, and so on. The 4-byte length field should contain the length of the following XML string in bytes. The FreeVBCode site provides free Visual Basic code, examples, snippets, and articles on a variety of other topics as well. Vote Up-1 Vote Down Reply. It needs 1 or 4 bytes to represent each symbol. When a Java byte type is converted to or from a character (1A) data type, ASCII conversion occurs. 10 of GroupDocs. i will share other solution in java convert string to int In Java 8 using stream API we can convert set of String to set of Integer, it involves following steps like, The Set. This method returns the value of this Byte as a byte. If the long is over 127, it loses its most significant (leftmost) bits. 2) Do conversion by writing your own logic without using any predefined methods. byte[] byteArr = str. In the form of bits, grouped by bytes, the long value would be: 00000000 00000000 00000001 01001110 10001000 01110000 00111101 10010011 We will create an array of. Each unit (1 or 0) is calling bit. The concatenation of the least significant 7 bits from each byte form the number, where the first byte has the most significant bits (so they are in big endian or network order). Possible Duplicate: Convert integer into byte array (Java) I need to store the length of a buffer, in a byte array 4 bytes large. How to convert Hex String to Bytes and viceversa in Java? Converting from hex String from a byte array and vice-versa is not available a function as part of JDK. Thank you, but what I need is to change an INT variable into BYTE, I need this to fill an array an send this array through serial port to my robot. Convert an UNSIGNED byte to a JAVA type Tag(s): String/Number In JAVA, a byte always considered as signed when converted to another type. The following table summarizes the mappings of Java data types to database data types for PreparedStatement. Define a byte array of length 4. GetBytes() method to convert an integer to a byte array of size 4. For the moment midi is working on my mac: I am able to turn notes on and of, fand I’d like to move on to the conversion of Pascal in java, and here is where the real problems start and where I need more help. NET Java Jobs. 52K · lsouza. Hive supports different data types to be used in table columns. Since java use one bit to mark sign, so we can make it without using 3-party lib. Ask Question Asked 4 years, Convert string to integer or default. All of these are signed, positive and negative values. Hello Everyone, I am trying to convert 4 Bytes (in Hexadecimal form) into decimal. byte -> short -> int -> long -> float -> double. toString() public static String toString(int i) Returns a String object representing the specified integer. By using Integer. TZ_CONVERT_TO_INT4 — SAP FM for Zeitzonen: Konvertierung in 4-Byte 'signed Integer Format'. This example shows how to convert Float object to numeric primitive types byte, short, int, long, float, and double. convert method, I've tried to convert it to code page 1251, but I still get the same result: chars (or bytes) always have the same 1252 value. For example, 32 contiguous bits may be treated as an array of 32 booleans, a 4-byte string, an unsigned 32-bit integer or an IEEE single precision floating point value. y = iconvert (X, itype) Arguments X. The int value is: 225 Convert Float to Int with Rounding. C# data types. I am no VB expert, but supposing you start with a string generated on the Java side like this: -24,23,-40,41,56,-2,11,77,52,-13; I think something like this VB code will work:. TFramedTransport is a buffered TTransport that ensures a fully read message every time by preceding messages with a 4-byte frame size. Best way to do this via “UTF-8” decoding. Tools to work with various data types are essential part of a modern computer language. Maybe if there would be a way how to copy byte by byte from left to right - 4 bits on one cycle, I could read the 4 bytes in loop char by char. Examples show you how to convert between int[] how to write xml parse in java and display in html…. How do you convert an array of bytes to an int or a float?. Classes Tables , GetBytes , Copy , and Print are the same as for encryption. Convert Integer to Float In this section, you will learn to convert an integer type data into a float. I have a column in an MS SQL table that is of type varbinary(max). A byte is the minimum amount of memory that we can manage in C. UCS-4 can easily be processed on the 32-bit computers of the 1990s using the default data type int. Converts the exact integer n to a machine-format number encoded in a byte string of length size-n, which must be 1, 2, 4, or 8. Streams being unidirectional in nature can transfer bytes in one direction only, that is, either reading data from the source into a program or writing data from a program to the destination. This method does not properly convert bytes into characters. A byte is an unsigned type, which means it can contain only positive numbers. It is just string of 32 binary bits. When a Java byte type is converted to or from a character (1A) data type, ASCII conversion occurs. This tip outlines two simple methods that help you to convert a number from the 'little-endian' format to the 'big-endian' format. In Java, it is not uncommon to manually convert an int (signed 32-bit integer) to and from an array of bytes. - Right now you typecast to DBL - FAIL - When the byte order is wrong you should use Reverse1DArray on those 4 byte-parts. This is a reference manual for the Go programming language. As the 4-byte unsigned integer can hold maxium 2 32-1 numbers, so it is possible to iterative each possibility, grouping them by number of zeros. Then you access those 4 bytes as a long. Let’s look at a simple program showing how to convert byte array to String in Java. For example, in C++ if we want to declare an integer type data type, then we have to write int number; However, there are three types of Data Type in C++. ConvertDataTypes. toHexString(27) it will yield 31 62 not 1B as I want. com,[email protected] First create a ByteBuffer with given byte array and then read next 4 bytes from it as an Integer. A data type specifies the type of data that a variable can store such as integer, floating, character etc. And when i read this 4 bytes from the file and get the value i should get 15282. A byte cannot be used to store negative numbers. Also Read: Convert Binary to Decimal in Java. Method to convert String to int array. map() is used to convert stream to stream. A simple browser-based utility that converts ASCII strings to bytes. byteArray = zeros(1,4, 'uint8'); byteArray(1) = 2; byteArray(2) = 1; whos byteArray, byteArray. Use the BitConverter. The NUXI Problem. Here is the following code that you are searching for it. 4-byte values (word, int) If we combine 4 bytes, we get a value with 32 bits, which can store 65536*65536 distinct values. also, once i have that integer, im going to want to read it sooner or later as 4 bytes again. I believe the definition of a Byte is 8 Bits. Alternatively, we can use String. By using Integer. round() method. Ah, you mean convert each individual byte into an unsigned int. convert long to 4 bytes If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. Simple approach is to use regular for loop to iterate over the object array and for every object, we cast it to Integer and assign it to the Integer array. The parseInt method is to convert the String to an int and throws a NumberFormatException if the string cannot be converted to an int type. Now what confused you are probably bits bytes and so forth which you interpreted them as implementation details. Real number to integer to byte help!!! 7. OK, I Understand. Size Required to Store Variable of Different Data Types. This tutorial provides explanation about data types in java. In this Java program we declared the integer array with random array elements, and then we will call the public static String toString (int[] anIntegerArray) method to convert the Java Int array to string. Feb 15, 2015 Core Java, Examples, Snippet, String comments This tutorial will show example codes on how to convert Java Int to String. lang package provides the functionality for converting an integer type data into a double. Both are listed below. - ConvertingSignedBytes. This post explains how to convert an unsigned long int into a byte array in C/C++. (1) is correct because when a floating-point number (a double in this case) is cast to an int, it simply loses the digits after the decimal. The following program has been written in three different ways using arrays, using the static method, using recursion, and vice versa conversion from Binary to decimal. After knowing the Java rules of Data Type Casting (Type Conversion), let us cast byte to int. The argument is converted to signed decimal representation and returned as a string, exactly as if the argument. Now what confused you are probably bits bytes and so forth which you interpreted them as implementation details. MD5 (defined in RFC 1321) is a common hash algorithm, and using it from C# is easy. How to convert 4 hex bytes into a single integer. Convert String to int in Java Example describes about Converting a String to int using Java. 0, autoboxing and unboxing feature convert primitives into objects and objects into primitives automatically. In this tutorial we will go over on how to convert any file to Array of Bytes in Java. It can't contain what you describe. Java has 8 primitive data types; char, boolean, byte, short, int, long, float, and double. The available constructor is BigInteger(sbyte[] bval). ToInt32 method which accepts byte array as input and returns the number. Lines normally contain 45 (binary) bytes, except for the last line. See the NOTICE file distributed with * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership. I came across an issue where I needed to convert a string representing HEX value into corresponding byte array. I didn't understand this. By using user defined logic. Skip navigation. 4 bytes, signed (two's complement). It's a partial object oriented programming language that follows concepts of classes and objects, polymorphism and encapsulation. The storage size of int data type is 2 or 4 or 8 byte. The n parameter indicates whether the field should hold 4 or 8 bytes. ' Function to convert 4 byte (32 bit) Hex value ' to a floating point decimal number ' using IEE 754 ' ' Dave Stow ' ' Lookup array of hex digits to binary digits Dim strBinaryDigits() As Variant ' String to put the full binary string into Dim strBinaryString As String ' Each part of the floating point number Dim intSign As Integer ' 1 or -1. Convert a feature to byte array. When the given bytes are not valid in the given charset, the behavior of this method is dependant on the implementation of the JRE. It is generally used if we have to display number in textfield because everything is displayed as a string in form. Then, we'll look at. Let’s look at a simple program showing how to convert byte array to String in Java. Return Value. Use a typecasting technique where you store the value you want to convert into a variable then use the below syntax where b1 is variable where result would be stored and d1 is variable in which you want your data to be converted byte b1 = (byte) d. When packing signed bytes into an int, each byte needs to be masked off because it is sign-extended to 32 bits (rather than zero-extended) due to the arithmetic promotion rule. OK, I Understand. In procedural program, programming logic follows certain procedures and the instructions are executed one after another. The most direct solution to convert a string to an integer is to use the parseInt method of the Java Integer class. The following example shows converting a Byte array to Integer. Assignment 1 byte value to 4 bytes is done implicitly by the JVM. I looked online and couldn't find a function to convert between the two types so I wrote my own. Bytes to integer. After knowing primitive data types and Java rules of Data Type Casting (Type Conversion), let us cast int to float. Classes Tables , GetBytes , Copy , and Print are the same as for encryption. For example if you create a file Source. (Calculate the characters in the string including the. but that's only true for ten bit values. The most significant bit of each byte indicates if more bytes follow. Java is one of the most used languages in the world. public String(byte[] bytes, int off, int len) Construct a new String by converting the specified subarray of bytes using the platform's default character encoding. In Java, we have eight primitive data types: boolean, char, byte, short, int, long, float and double. See the full details in the post "Politics and News Rules & Guidelines. Hive supports different data types to be used in table columns. Small integer ( SMALLINT) is 2-byte signed integer that has a range from -32,768 to 32,767. Naive – Naive solution would be to create an array of String type and use a regular for loop to assign values to it from primitive integer array after converting int to Strings. Fast, free, and without ads. For example if you create a file Source. This byte represents the minutes portion of the time zone displacement. In this chapter you will learn: How to convert an integer value to byte, double, float, int, long and short; How to decode a string and return an integer value. I suggest you review variable declaration for Arduino. so result = 0100 i. In this Java tutorial, we will convert JSON Array to String array in Java and subsequently create JSON from Java String Array. Another example: 0x01234567 -> 0x67, 0x45,. Reader on the file and it works fine, but I also want to be able to parse []byte directly. string to integer/byte. ToSingle() in netduino i tried to make a similar method but without success these are the following methods i used: public static float ToFloat(byte[] buffer) { return (float)(buffer[0] << 24 | buffer[1] << 16 | buffer. Here are two short examples. parseLong(String) Long. toBytes(int) method. java /* * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more * contributor license agreements. The C++ standard doesn't guarantee that a long is 4 bytes — it may be longer. Encoding this String into a sequence of bytes using the given Charset, storing the result into a new byte array. Java Int Array Examples. ' Function to convert 4 byte (32 bit) Hex value ' to a floating point decimal number ' using IEE 754 ' ' Dave Stow ' ' Lookup array of hex digits to binary digits Dim strBinaryDigits() As Variant ' String to put the full binary string into Dim strBinaryString As String ' Each part of the floating point number Dim intSign As Integer ' 1 or -1. There are 3 types of bit wise shift operators. but that's only true for ten bit values. Example Java codes will be shown below. BYTE_TO_INT would only work for one of the bytes. ive got a pointer to an array of bytes, but i want to read 4 of those bytes as an integer. Java int type conversion. Tools to work with various data types are essential part of a modern computer language. the number 457 splits into 3 Bytes. I am a newbie yet. The most-significant bit of the 4-bit representation is replicated sinistrally to fill in the destination when we convert to a representation with more bits; this is sign extending. parseInt() methods. Same for next 2 bytes and then next 4 bytes. but that's only true for ten bit values. byte -> short -> int -> long -> float -> double. The int value is: 225 Convert Float to Int with Rounding. int to byte) the conversion is done modulo the length of the smaller type. Active 5 years, 10 months ago. Let's look at a simple program showing how to convert byte array to String in Java. Type Number of Bytes Range of Values byte 1 -128 to +127 short 2 -32,768 to +32,767 int 4 -2 billion to +2 […]. round can be used to round a float value to int. Java - Convert String to int. If we have 8 bits, then -3 is 11111101. I need to convert an int to a big endian 4 byte-array. (1) is correct because when a floating-point number (a double in this case) is cast to an int, it simply loses the digits after the decimal. Below is an example: /** * A Simple Program That Converts Java Float to Int with rounding. 整数1695609641を4のバイトの配列に変換して、元の整数に戻す例です. But when you treat those as integers you will get results that may appear strange. jar archive contains the framework code that is to. ¥assembling memory bytes into integer registers!Consider 4-byte memory word and 32-bit register ¥it has memory addresses i, i+1, i+2, and i+3 ¥weÕll just say it's Ò at address i and is 4 bytes long Ó ¥e. Define a byte array of length 4. This post introduces how to convert a valid string to int and int to string in C++ using C and C++ ways and libraries. Since J2SE 5. In total, array ‘points’ takes 28016 bytes, while the actual data is stored in 8000. In the form of bits, grouped by bytes, the long value would be: 00000000 00000000 00000001 01001110 10001000 01110000 00111101 10010011 We will create an array of. updateXXX methods in JDBC programs, and for input host expressions in SQLJ programs. Convert two bytes to Int16 in C#? 16. Just don't read it as a float, read it into an int, switch the endianness of that if necessary, and then convert it into a float using *(float*)&myInteger Then if that works - great! If it doesn't then write the data in another format such as text. You can do this if you treat the big int as a 8 byte string of bits, then chop it into 2 4 byte strings of bits and convert those into ints. toString(); 4. Online Converter with API This online Arabic-Integer-to-English tool extends the integer ranges from negative 2^63-1 to 2^63-1 (that is from – 9223372036854775807 to 9223372036854775807 ) using the. We can convert int to String in java using String. Hi mkyong, I am not sure if file length is too large, It may be cannot work, can you suggest me? Thanks. Use NewEncoder() instead. 4 bytes from the input data. My work is to fetch byte array stored as string the database and convert it to byte array and finally render the content as PDF. How do I convert an int to two bytes in C#? Web Master and Programmer · int number = int. public class TFramedTransport extends TTransport. Then Retracted Date, time in Bytes. The %u, %x, and %o format specifiers typically represent unsigned integer conversions. he wants the 32 bits of the int converted into 4 bytes: 0. com An integer (the primitive int) in Java should always be 4 bytes long hence the type isn't dynamic. but that's only true for ten bit values. Let’s learn about few ways of reading data from files into byte array in java. Return Value. If you want to combine 4 bytes, the result has to be placed in either an int (4 bytes) or a long (8 bytes). In case when you need to account for all possible values of unsigned values in Java, you should convert from unsigned type to a larger numeric type and back. Int = 32bit = 4 bytes. Possible values: 0 to 2147483647. How to convert String to Byte in Java? By mkyong Here i demonstrate how do convert a String to a Byte variable with Mkyong. map() is used to convert stream to stream. Webliography. * Yes, XStream is a new feature of 11g release 2 * No, it doesn't rely on any already existing features of Streams * Yes, XStream provides a very nice extension to Streams that you would probably not be able to build manually, even with months of custom development, except maybe, if you mine the content of the redo/archived logs from the outside like GoldenGate does. Tools to work with various data types are essential part of a modern computer language. In Java, the data type int is defined precisely to be four. delphi representation of 8-byte unsigned integer? 3. Convert a byte array integer (4 bytes) to its int value /* * Java Bittorrent API as its name indicates is a JAVA API that implements the Bittorrent Protocol * This project contains two packages: * 1. The byte takes 1 byte of memory and long takes 8 bytes of memory. This byte array can be used to pass through network as well as other program APIs for further processing. For example. We can convert int to long in java using assignment operator. Top 10 Methods for Java Arrays The following are top 10 methods for Java Array. For example, a 4-byte integer 0x12345678 (305419896 decimal) would be ordered natively (arranged in and handled by the CPU registers) into bytes as. The binascii module defines the following functions:. 4 bytes, signed (two's complement). The Laws of Cryptography with Java Code. toString(); 4. Int performance. So could some one help me on this. We have made STL code so solve the problem but it isn't working as it should be. For example, in C++ if we want to declare an integer type data type, then we have to write int number; However, there are three types of Data Type in C++. And also as you said "binary of 4 bytes accommodate -2,147,483,648 through +2,147,483,647" Does not it accommodate -4294967295 to +4294967295 i. Byte in Java is represented by signed int in range (-128, 127), Byte Python is represented by unsigned int in range(0, 255). java /* * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more * contributor license agreements. Stream() is used to convert set to stream. I also explains primitive and reference data types in detail. Converts a specified value to a Unicode character. Convert Java Integer object to Numeric. Hi guys, This is interesting, but I face another issue. I searched this site, but none of the threads really helped me Can anyone help me please? Thanks. Discards any whitespace characters (as identified by calling isspace()) until the first non-whitespace character is found, then takes as many characters as possible to form a valid base-n (where n=base) unsigned integer number representation and converts them to an integer value. When lossy casts. This is the right way to convert float to int if you are interested in rounding before conversion. Converting integer to 2 bytes and back again. Pseudo code: private byte[] convertLengthToByte(byte[] myBuf. We have recently released version 19. Note that these are ONLY basic level programs for easy understanding of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. What you reading in, is a text and nothing else. he wants the 32 bits of the int converted into 4 bytes: 0. In the form of bits, grouped by bytes, the long value would be: 00000000 00000000 00000001 01001110 10001000 01110000 00111101 10010011 We will create an array of. Write a program to convert binary to decimal number. Convert an UNSIGNED byte to a JAVA type Tag(s): String/Number In JAVA, a byte always considered as signed when converted to another type. Citizens2 / main / src / main / java / net in the specified block and convert them into a 32-bit int, using the an array of ints. Primitive types are the data types defined by the language itself. Java Tutorials and Examples. I Have a value of an int as 15282. Whats the best way to do this. Narrowing type conversion Coming to your question when you want to convert int to byte you have to do it explicitly. The most common way to represent an IP address is XXX. The following example defines a string array and attempts to convert each string to a Byte. This means every bit in memory is part of a byte. Eg:- decimal val=286443434397 hexadecimal val=AABBCCDD Sending values as AA BB CC DDIe 1 byte of hexadecimal value each To TXRE. Written in Java within the IDE Eclipse, but the concept and method is universal, and can be done very. I recently needed to convert an array of integers to an array of bytes in order to work with an existing database design. Example of converting a C++ unsigned int to Java long: C++ layer converts unsigned int values to 4 bytes and sends it to Java layer. ) on FreeVBCode. In this post, we will discuss how to convert int array to String array in Java. Real number to integer to byte help!!! 7. conversion to 1 or 4 byte integer representation. A data type is a set of values and the allowable operations on those values. How to: Convert a byte Array to an int (C# Programming Guide) 07/20/2015; 2 minutes to read +6; In this article. offset - Offset to start reading bytes in the byte array. Does Java support the ICO format even though it is from Microsoft? Why does ImageIO fail to read from the URL? Thank you in advance! Practice As Follows. In this article, we will discuss various techniques of converting int to a byte array and vice versa, int array to byte array and so on. x DDB header. Program to Convert Binary to Decimal in Java. toString() Method. The FreeVBCode site provides free Visual Basic code, examples, snippets, and articles on a variety of other topics as well. Now what confused you are probably bits bytes and so forth which you interpreted them as implementation details. In this post, we will discuss how to convert int array to String array in Java. Create a ByteArrayInputStream object by passing the byte array (that is to be converted) to its constructor. toString(); 4. When the given bytes are not valid in the given charset, the behavior of this method is dependant on the implementation of the JRE. Convert arraylist to String 2005-05-31: Convert double to a float 2004-10-03: Convert double to string 2004-10-03: convert float to int 2006-10-22: Convert float to string 2004-10-03: Convert integer to double 2004-10-02: Convert integet to float 2004-10-02: Convert long to byte 2005-04-13: convert lower case letter in the string to upper case. In procedural program, programming logic follows certain procedures and the instructions are executed one after another. It will pay off if for example you were processing just a 4-byte field in a 512-byte record, since only the bytes you need are copied from the buffer, not the entire record. Look for all comments mentioned in below Java program. ToInt32 method which accepts byte array as input and returns the number. (The old flash version is here. Methods is a very common topic in any programming. EDIT: im getting the byte[] from sockets. However, I'd like to store this number into an Integer. First byte is 2. We must mask the sign bit to JAVA, cast to an integer and process the masked bit if needed. How to convert Hex String to Bytes and viceversa in Java? Converting from hex String from a byte array and vice-versa is not available a function as part of JDK. In Java, read file to byte array can be needed into variety of situations. Each bytecode is composed of one byte that represents the opcode, along with zero or more bytes for operands. * * @param b The byte array * @return The integer */ public static int byteArrayToInt(byte[] b) { return Convert A Byte Array To An Int - DZone Over a. For binary the base is 2. int to byte) the conversion is done modulo the length of the smaller type. The data types in C++ are similar to those in Java. 03 longint2 PIC S9(9) COMP-5. See the full details in the post "Politics and News Rules & Guidelines. An integer can be used to represent numbers that range from negative to positive values, or numbers that have only positive values. Program to Convert Binary to Decimal in Java. We have to add the object header of 12 bytes, which adds up to 20 bytes. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: